Istoria, aşa cum o ştiu


sursa:http://poisonpage.blogspot.ro/2011/03/world-war-in-cartoons-by-illingworth.html

De când mă ştiu m-a pasionat istoria. Academică, ne-academică, reală, imaginară, romanţată, seacă, falsă sau adevărată. De mic copil l-am invidiat pe Mihai Viteazul a lui Bălcescu şi pe Alexandru Macedon (era idolul meu!), l-am plâns pe Ion-vodă cel Cumplit, i-am urât pe sarazinii ce îl atacau mişeleşte pe Roland şi aşa mai departe.

În clasa a IV-a învăasem pe de rost un fragment destul de mare ce descria intervenţia lui Mihai în bătălia de la Călugăreni, din Istoria romînlor supt Mihai-vodă Viteazul. Încă îl ţin minte. Am citit, am citit, am citit. Probabil că Lenin ar fi fost mândru de mine.

În clasa I am primit premiul doi, printre altele, o carte cu povestiri despre el. Una dintre primele întâlniri cu istoria sovietică, scrisă de sovietici. Nu l-am ajuns pe Stalin, dar l-am văzut pe Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej la Arad.

Am citit despre eroii sovietici: Ceapaev, care se lupta cu albii, Pavlic, copilul partizan ce secera nemţii cu automatul fără să clipească. Apoi eroii noştri: Vasile Roaită, Eftimie Croitoru, soldatul român ce s-a aruncat în aer odată cu mina nemţească pentru a salva podul de pontoane de peste Tisa. Evenimentele importante erau greva ceferiştilor de la atelierele Griviţa din 1933, greva de la Lupeni din 1929, Răscoala din 1907, Războiul de independenţă din 1878-79.

Ţin minte că serile le petreceam în familie, citind poezii de Alecsandri, Coşbuc, Eminescu şi cîntînd printre altele „Mai am un singur dor…” Mama ne-a cîntat o dată în şoaptă imnul regelui. Apoi am descoperit istoria naţională, eliberată parţial de chingile comunismului stalinist. Eroii revoluţiei de la 1848-49 din Transilvania: Iancu şi cei 13 generali. La vârsta aceea nu am înţeles ce s-a întâmplat în Transilvania.

Am început să citesc Magazin Istoric, revista Lumea (fosta Timpuri Noi) şi bineînţeles manualele de istorie ale sorei mele mai mari cu şase ani. Când am împlinit patrusprezece ani şi am primit într-o duminică dimineaţa buletinul „într-un cadru festiv”, primul drum l-am făcut la Biblioteca municipală. Noroc că dumnica se închidea la ora douăsprezece!

Dar am devenit un client constant şi insistent. Depăşisem faza Dumas, căutam ceva mai mult. Am trecut la filosofie, dar nu m-a tentat prea mult. Critica raţiunii pure? Nu! Istoria era mai palpabilă. Nu ştiam ce vorbeam…

Apoi am început să pun cap la cap informaţiile provenite din familie: bunicii care veniseră într-o dimineaţă să-l întrebe pe tata dacă să intre sau nu în colectivă, unchiul care scăpase cu viaţă la alegerile din 1945 doar pentru că fugise pe fereastra din spatele secţie de votare atunci când la intrare se buluceau muncitori înarmaţi cu automate ruseşti, plimbările pe malul Mureşului din anii ’60 şi clădirea Tribunalului din Arad, păzită de o santinelă cu baioneta la armă şi semnele cu degetul peste buze făcut de tata cînd am întrebat în gura mare „Ce-i aici?”, etc.

va urma

Creştini copţi atacaţi


Confruntări violente au avut loc joi între 2.000 de manifestanţi de confesiune coptă şi poliţie, în oraşul egiptean Nagaa Hamadi (est), după un atac armat comis miercuri seară şi soldat cu moartea a şase creştini şi a unui poliţist.

 

Mediafax spune că aceasta are loc după ce şase egipteni creştini şi un poliţist au fost ucişi, miercuri seara, în oraşul egiptean Nagaa Hamadi (est), după ce trei necunoscuţi au deschis focul asupra mulţimii pe o stradă comercială a oraşului, în Ajunul Crăciunului copt.

Alţi nouă creştini de confesiune coptă au fost răniţi în acest atac, afirmă surse egiptene citate de agenţia oficială MENA.

Trei necunoscuţi, aflaţi la bordul unui autovehicul, au deschis focul asupra creştinilor într-un cartier comercial, în timp ce aceştia se aprovizionau pentru a sărbători Crăciunul, celebrat de copţi pe 7 ianuarie.

Potrivit unor martori, atacul a avut loc în faţa bisericii principale din Nagaa Hamadi, la ieşirea creştinilor copţi de la o sliujbă susţinută la miezul nopţii.

Potrivit versiunii oficiale a serviciilor de securitate, „primele elemente ale anchetei indică faptul că principalul atacator ar fi un locuitor al oraşului care se numeşte Mohamed Ahmed Hussein (musulman), cunoscut de poliţie”.

Book Review: The Lost History of Christianity, Philip Jenkins


Reproduc integral o recenzie a cărţii menţionate în titlu. Mi se pare un alt punct de vedere asupra creştinismului cum îl ştiam până acum. 

 

The Lost History of Christianity:
The Thousand-Year Golden Age of the Church in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia — and How It Died
by Philip Jenkins, 2008, HarperOne.

lost-history-jenkinsThis book could easily have been several things it is not: an academic treatise, an intemperate diatribe against Islamic violence, or an uncritical glamorization of Nestorian and Jacobite Christianity.

In the able hands of Philip Jenkins, The Lost History of Christianity becomes a balanced reading of the loss of a treasure of knowledge and culture the world is too ignorant about to mourn. While meeting all the standards of academic rigor, the book manages to avoid tedious prose. While firmly recognizing and decrying Islamic violence, Jenkin’s account recognizes both the culpability of non-Islamic violence and the reality in which religion becomes an excuse for violence seeking power. While lamenting the lost treasures of knowledge that would be afforded us had Middle Eastern Christianity survived, Jenkins is honest about the differences in doctrine in the Eastern churches.

The Lost History of Christianity is filled with little-known and infinitely intriguing facts:

-The world’s view of Christianity is tainted with a Western veneer that does not accurately reflect its historical genesis.

-While the Holy Roman Empire wallowed in ignorance and violence, the Middle Eastern Church was intimately familiar with classical literature and pursued peaceful relations with Islam and Buddhism.

-Great minds such as Timothy, Patriarch of the East in 780 C.E., have been all but lost to the destruction of Middle Eastern Christianity.

-Great works, including Syriac versions of classical literature which do not exist today and manuscripts of the Bible and other early Christian literature, were all in the possession of these churches which died an early death.

-Middle Eastern Christians preserved Semitic customs, calling Jesus Yeshua as late as the thirteenth century, calling themselves Nazarenes, an calling their scholars Rabbans!

-These Eastern churches possessed scrolls found in Jericho — perhaps some of the Dead Sea Scrolls now lost to us.

-The Eastern Churches mounted a monument in the East explaining the good news in Buddhist style to reach out peacefully to them (rather than the oppositional approach of later churches).

-The great surviving Patriarchate of the Middle Eastern Assyrian Christians is now in Chicago!

-The Eastern canon gives the lie to the claim that Christendom suppressed the apocryphal gospels for political reasons.

-The Karen Armstrong depiction of Muslim tolerance “beggars belief” (p.99).

-“Genocide” is a term coined to describe a massacre of Assyrian Christians by Muslims in 1933 (a fact to which Hitler alluded in a speech).

-100 years ago the Middle East was still 11% Christian (Muslims in America are 4.5% and Jews 2%), whereas today Christians are virtually zero percent of the Middle Eastern population.

-Vlad the Impaler (the figure who inspired Bram Stoker’s Dracula) was known for using the viscious methods of Turkish Muslims against them (hence his reputation for bloody cruelty).

-800,000 to 1,000,000 Armenians were slaughtered by the Ottoman Turks in a massacre rarely mentioned alongside other historical genocides.

-The word thought to mean “virgins” in the promises of the Koran to martyrs and killers of Jews and Christians may be a mistranslation of the word “raisin” in earlier Christian texts about the afterlife!!

Examples of Jenkins’ careful language about Islamic violence include this portion from page 30:

In stressing the role of conflict with Islam, we should not exaggerate the intolerant or militaristic nature of that religion. Some egregious examples of church extinction were perpetrated by other faiths, by Buddhists or followers of Shinto, or by Christians themselves, most thoroughly in the case of the Cathars. Nor did the spread of Islam chiefly result from force and compulsion at the hands of Muslim soldiers who supposedly offered a crude choice between the Quran and the sword. For several centuries after the original conquests, the great majority of those who accepted Islam converted quite voluntarily . . .

Yet Jenkins is equally critical of exaggerated claims of Islamic tolerance:

Karen Armstrong regularly contrasts Muslim tolerance with the bigotry so evident in Christian history. Writing of Islamic Spain in the ninth century, for instance, she remarks: ‘Like the Jews, Christians were allowed full religious liberty within the Islamic empire and most Spaniards were proud to belong to such an advanced culture, light years ahead of the rest of Europe. . . . As was customary in the Muslim world, Jews, Christians and Muslims had coexisted there for centuries in relative harmony.’ The persecutions [by Muslims] would also surprise the many Americans who derive their view of Muslim tolerance from the widely seen PBS documentary Empires of Faith, or the film Kingdom of Heaven, about the First Crusade. In reality, the story of religious change involved far more active persecution and massacre at the hands of Muslim authorities than would be suggested by modern believers in Islamic tolerance. Even in the most optimistic view, Armstrong’s reference to Christians possessing “full religious liberty” in Muslim Spain or elsewhere beggars belief.

More importantly, Jenkins’ book leaves the reader longing for the lost pearl of Middle Eastern Christianity. The literature, including classical, Biblical, and other religious texts, as well as the architectural and artistic wonders now lost, stagger the mind with lost possibilities and unrealized knowledge.

What would it be like if millions upon millions in the Middle East still referred to Jesus as Yeshua and their scholars as rabbans? Due to Western indifference, Muslim intolerance, and the tragic mixing of violent politics with religious claims, we will never know.

And what would Christianity look like today, and how might Christian-Jewish relations be different (not to mention Christian-Islamic and Christian-Buddhist relations) if the voice of Middle Eastern Christianity had not been silenced? Perhaps Post-Holocaust Christian theology would have turned to the Middle East for a third way of viewing these issues. And perhaps the blonde Jesus and the Roman-centric idea of Christianity would have a rival to at least broaden the world’s conception of who Jesus is.